|Title||Characterization of IHSS Pony Lake fulvic acid dissolved organic matter by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||D’Andrilli, J, Foreman, CM, Marshall, AG, McKnight, DM|
|Pagination||19 - 28|
We present the extensive characterization of Antarctic Pony Lake (PL) dissolved organic matter (DOM), an International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) fulvic acid (FA) reference standard, using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) and excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS). PLFA is the first reference standard available through IHSS derived solely from a microbial source. A number of factors differentiate PLFA from other IHSS standards, including source material, geographic location, sunlight exposure, freeze–thaw conditions, and other in situ environmental influences. ESI FT-ICR MS and EEMS were used to compare the PLFA microbial DOM compositional signature with the IHSS Suwannee River (SR) FA, a standard frequently studied for environmental DOM analysis. Although CcHhOoNnSs (n = 0, 1, or 2 and s = 0 or 1) constituents were present in both IHSS samples, PLFA contained more N and S molecular species, whereas SRFA was dominated by CcHhOo compounds. Proteinaceous character was detected with both methods, in greater abundance for PLFA, which we attributed to its microbial source material and labile, potentially more reactive nature than SRFA. Characterization from both analytical techniques resulted in complementary data that reinforce the importance of PLFA as an IHSS reference standard that should be utilized for other microbiological environmental DOM comparisons.